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Various CSY Tips from Dave
as posted on Topica.com

Overhaul on 1980 Perkins 4154

(Posted 12/17/2004) I too have a Perkins 4154, vintage 1980, old style which should be just like yours. With my Perkins Workshop Manual in hand I completely overhauled it in my garage in 1998--a long, somewhat expensive but very educational and worthwhile project. Now, 6 years later, I'm convinced that my $3000 overhaul done by me was a far better decision than a $10,000 replacement done by someone else. Now I know what makes Mr Perkins tick and how to diagnose and repair it without having to hire help at $50+ an hour or worse be towed in from some remote location at $150+ an hour. I treated the overhaul kind of like a 6 month college course in diesel mechanics. The hardest part was keeping track of all the fasteners and their replacements. I still ended up with a hand full of extras which I saved just in case. This overhaul also gave me access and time to consider improvements I could make on the engine. Amongst the changes I made were things like rearranging the pulleys so that the two water pumps were belted together and the new high output alternator got two belts instead of one and plumbing an oil drain hose up from the bottom plug in the sump. There are also many other things you can do to this engine to improve serviceability and access while it is out of the boat. My engine had only 6000 hours on it but had major problems even though it ran well at the time. Had I not overhauled it before we left on our Caribbean cruise it would have soon been a disaster.

Now to your problem. I'm sure you are aware that there are at least two fuel pumps on your engine-- the mechanical lift pump on the starboard side and the injection pump on the port side. The lift pump is about the size of a doughnut and deals with pumping fuel at low pressure. The injection pump takes the low pressure fuel and feeds it to the injectors at a much higher pressure. Depending on where you are working in the fuel system there is rubber hose and 1/4" metal fuel line (the same size as 1/4" brake lines). The rubber hose should stop at the lift pump. The rest of the lines running through the secondary fuel filter, the injection pump and to the injectors should be metal. There is also a metal return line running along the top of the injectors back to the filter. From there back to the tank will be rubber hose. The devices used to seal these lines to their various attachments include hose clamps, aluminum/soft copper washers, rubber olives and expanded ends. By looking carefully with a strong light you should be able to identify where the leaks are coming from. In most cases a slight tightening of the joint will seal the leak. About the only place you have to be careful not to over tighten is the joint at the injectors ("high pressure fuel pipe nuts") where you could crack the expanded end of the high pressure injector line (each one is $35 so be careful). The spec is 15 foot pounds or "tight but not real tight". If tightening down a bit doesn't solve the problem, loosen up the joint, take it apart and have real good look with a magnifying glass at all the parts until you find the problem. It doesn't take much in a high pressure line to cause a small leak. A good injector repair shop should have the olives and maybe the washers. Aluminum/soft copper washers are also available at a good local hardware store. I use Tradewinds Diesel in Miami (commercial discount available) or Complete Yacht in Ft Lauderdale (new and used Perkins parts) when I need Perkins parts. However, there are many other good Perkins dealers around the country.

If the leak is on the body of the lift pump you can no longer buy parts, except outside the US, so go to a Perkins dealer for a replacement for about $50. You could also replace it with an electric pump as long as the pressure is right and you are willing to trust another electric motor. Or maybe the best situation, plumb both mechanical and electric pumps for use one at a time with the other as backup. If the leak is on the body of the injection pump you should take it to the best injector shop you can find with a clean room and experience in your pump. Injection pumps should be overhauled every 2500 hours according to the repair manual and Everglades Diesel in Ft Lauderdale where I take mine. There is good reason for that periodicity due to the risk of major problems and expense if the injection pump seals fail in the wrong place. You should never attempt to take the injection pump apart yourself because it requires specialized tools and a very clean environment. That is why there is no info on overhauling it in the workshop manual.

Regarding good diesel manuals and obtaining advice I would recommend obtaining a copy of one of Nigel Calder's books: Marine Diesel Engines or Boat Owner's Mechanical and Electrical Manual. Look in Amazon.com. There are also others. You should also have onboard the two Perkins manuals--4154 Workshop Manual and Operators Manual for Marine Diesel Engines and maybe a parts manual. It's well worth doing your homework by reading these manuals and learning your engine before something goes wrong and you end up spending a great deal of money for someone else to fix it. Armed with the knowledge from these sources you will also be better able to seek and evaluate any advice you may obtain--including the above. Hope this helps and good luck with your engine.  (top)

Synthetic Engine Oil & Engine Oil Analysis

I use a lab in Atlanta called Power Trac to do my engine oil analysis (800-394-3669), but there are many others. Just stop by any large diesel dealer and they can sell you a sampling kit consisting of small double plastic bottles for about $12 US.

I take a sample about every 300 hours and send it in via any cruiser going back to the US. After a week or so they will send me the detailed computer printed results via mail, fax or my phone call. It's a great way to keep tabs on what's going on inside the engine.

Most major truck fleets and other multiple diesel users like the US Navy have been doing this for years. Oil analysis is part of what we called trend analysis in the Navy, and it was part of the engineer's work to monitor it.

If you want to do this make sure you get the Amsoil ByPass oil filter to remove contaminants down to 1/2 micron and all moisture from the oil. Otherwise even though your synthetic oil's lubricity may be intact, and it should be for a couple of thousand hours, the oil will get overwhelmed by contaminants and water. In addition to the oil being better for your engine, the main reason I started this was to keep from having to carry the many gallons of oil I would need to change oil every 150 hours as Perkins recommends. Third world oil is of questionable quality and very expensive. I don't understand how most cruisers do this using petroleum oils. The same applies to two cycle oil, so bring gallons with you. You can check out the Amsoil extended oil change program by visiting their website, calling Amsoil headquarters at 715-392-7101 and talking to one of their engineers or get their sales literature from any Amsoil dealer in the yellow pages.

I think it's a great program but have found very few cruising users, maybe because it's not heavily advertised by the marine industry and the engine needs to have low hours when you start the program.

Buying New Cruising Sails

(Posted 02/01/2004)  Just finished contracting with Supersailmakers in Ft Lauderdale for three new sails. Thought some of you on the list might benefit from the following information and specifications that I worked up for our new sails. It was quite an enlightening experience and well worth the effort.

Over the course of four months I sent out 10 sets of basic specs and received quotes from Calvert, Mack, Atlantic Sailtraders and Supersailmakers in the US and Lee and Hong Kong overseas. The quotes ranged from $7.5K to $10.5K. Sails ordered direct from overseas firms are subject to about $1K in shipping, duty, and customs agent fees and may require finishing full batten construction in the US. After including all costs for equal sails the least expensive overseas sails from Hong Kong were only about $1.2K less than Supersailmakers with a slow season and commercial discount. I considered working with a local sailmaker that would measure my boat and provide other personal advice and services well worth the difference.

I found the following to be some of the major discussion/decision points:
--Batten length and details
--Cloth quality and weight-look very closely at quality
--Layout and cut
--Mainsail reef details
--Corner construction
--Chafe and sun protection
--Use-Seasonal, coastal or bluewater
--Leech and foot construction
--Jib and staysail clew positions
--Measurement procedures
--Mainsail luff construction and hardware

My file of reading material is now a full 2 inches thick and includes many good recent resources including:
--Sailrite Catalog
--Sail Care catalog
--Sail Warehouse catalog
--Practical Sailor articals from 1 Oct and 1 Nov 2003
--Dashew's Cruising Encyclopedia
--and a host of various magazine articals
Recent info from the past three years is generally better as cloth and sailmaking technology is changing rapidly. The two major US sail cloth manufacturers, Challenge and Contender, also have excellent info on their websites.

I recommend you do your homework well as this is one of the most expensive and important projects you will do, and one with which many of us are not well acquainted. In the end I found myself shopping more for an experienced sailmaker I could trust to advise me well than one who would do it my way at the best price.

SOGGY PAWS SAIL SPECIFICATIONS

-GENERAL SPECS FOR ALL SAILS:

-BOAT & CREW: A HEAVILY CONSTRUCTED 21 TON CSY 44 TALL RIG WALKTHROUGH CUTTER, MY WIFE AND I ARE PREPARING FOR A 10 YEAR TRADEWIND CIRCUMNAVIGATION COMMENCING WINTER 04/5
-SAIL CONSTRUCTION: EXTRA HEAVY DUTY FOR LONG TERM BLUE WATER CRUISING, MAXIMUM UV RESISTANCE THROUGHOUT, MAXIMUM CHAFE PROTECTION AND MIMIMUM LONG TERM STRETCH
-CLOTH: CHALLENGE MARBLEHEAD PREMIUM HIGH TENACITY HIGH MODULUS POLYESTER
-LAYOUT: JIB, STAYSAIL AND MAIN CROSSCUT, GENERALLY SHAPED WITH FULL ENTRIES AND STRAIGHT EXITS WITH DRAFT WELL FORWARD
-STITCHING: TRIPLE STITCHED, UV RESISTANT V-138 OR BETTER THREAD, EXTRA WIDE SEAMS AT LEAST 1.5" WIDE TO ALLOW FOR FUTURE REPAIR WITHOUT STITCHING OVER EXISTING STITCHES, WEBBING AND ACRYLIC SUNCOVERS STITCHED WITH MIMIMUM SAME THREAD
-CORNERS: HEAVILY REINFORCED EXTENSIVE LAYERED PATCHES WITH AT LEAST 6 LAYERS OF CLOTH TO SPREAD LOADS AND SUPPORT CORNER RINGS AND WEBBING, ACRYLIC ON JIB AND STAYSAIL TO BE DOUBLED OVER EDGES AS BOTH CHAFE PROTECTION AND SUN COVER, NO LEATHER
-CORNER RINGS: USE #35 HYDRAULICALLY PRESSED RUGERSON ALL STAINLESS STEEL RINGS AT JIB AND STAYSAIL CLEWS AND MAIN HEAD AND CLEW, USE HEAVY WELDED SS EXPOSED RINGS AT JIB AND STAYSAIL HEAD, TACK AND MAIN TACK, EXPOSED RINGS TO BE ATTACHED WITH HEAVY WEBBING AND SUN PROTECTED
-CHAFE PROTECTION: FOR JIB AND STAYSAIL USE 4" 3 OZ TAPE OVER ALL CHAFE POINTS ON SEAMS INCLUDING SHROUDS AND SPREADERS, MAINSAIL CHAFE PROTECTION DESCRIBED UNDER MAINSAIL SPECIFICS
-TELL TALES: FULL COMPLEMENT ON ALL SAILS, MADE WITH YARN
-MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS: INDICATED ARE APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM EDGE DISTANCES RING TO RING AVAILABLE, LOFT MUST TAKE OWN EXACT MEASUREMENTS AND DEDUCT APPROPRIATE NUMBER OF INCHES IN EACH DIMENSION, ESPECIALLY LUFF, TO ALLOW FOR HEAVY WEATHER TENSIONING AND ULTIMATE STRETCH DUE TO AGING
-LEECH AND FOOT CONSTRUCTION: TWO PLY LEECH AND FOOT TABLINGS, INSTALL EXTRA THICKNESS OF WIDER TAPE UNDER THE DOUBLED LEECH TABLING AND LEECH LINE, HEAVY DUTY LEECH LINES CENTERED IN THE TABLING WITH STITCHING ON EITHER SIDE, LEECH LINES ADJUSTABLE AT CLEWS AND AT ALL LEECH REEF CRINGLES WITH CAMCLEATS TO HOLD ADJUSTMENTS
-SAIL LETTERING NOT REQUIRED
-PROVIDE REPAIR KIT CONSISTING OF EXTRA BATTEN AND LEECH END FITTING, 5 AWLSLIP SLIDES, WEBBING FOR SLIDES, AND MISC STRIPS AND SQUARES OF 9.77 AND 10.77 OZ CLOTH, TELLTALE MATERIAL

STAYSAIL SPECIFICS:

-MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS: LUFF 38-0, LEECH 33-0, FOOT 13-10, APPROX 230 SF
-SIZE/SHAPE: MAXIMUM SIZE TO FILL STAYSAIL TRIANGLE WITHOUT TOUCHING ANY FORDECK EQUIPMENT, ALLOW CLEARANCE OVER DINGHY ON CABINTOP, SHAPE FOR POWER UNDER 30 KNOTS OF WIND BUT FLATTER AS ROLLER REEFED TO STORM JIB
-CLOTH: 10.77 OZ CHALLENGE MARBLEHEAD POLYESTER
-REEFING: NR 5 LUFF TAPE FOR ROLLER FURLING/REEFING ON PROFURL NC 42, STITCH IN BEST QUALITY CLOSED CELL FOAM IN LUFF ENCLOSED IN POLYESTER CLOTH TO FLATTEN SAIL SHAPE WHEN ROLLER REEFED AS STORM JIB
-CLEW POSITION: GENERALLY HIGH TO CLEAR DINGHY ON FORDECK AND SO REEFED SHEET LEADS REMAIN NEARLY SAME AS UNREEFED, UNFURLED CLEW POSITION SHOULD JUST CLEAR MAST AND FORWARD LOWER SHROUDS
-SUN PROTECTION: CHARCOAL GREY SUNBRELLA ACRYLIC, SEWN ON PORT SIDE, COVER ENTIRE LENGTH OF LEECH AND FOOT AND HEAD AND TACK CORNERS BACK APPROX 2' ALONG LUFF EDGES, SEW ACRYLIC AROUND EDGES AND CORNERS AND OVER CLOTH AND ALL STRAIN RELIEF WEBBING, INSTALL SUN COVER SO EASILY REPLACED WITHOUT REMOVING ANY WEBBING OR CLOTH
-TACK/HEAD: CUTBACKS FOR PROFURL NC 42
-TELLTALES: PLACE THREE TELLTALES 12" AFT OF LUFF AT 20/40/60% UP FROM TACK


JIB SAIL SPECIFICS:

-MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS: LUFF 56-0, LEECH 50-6, FOOT 26-9, APPROX 700 SF
-SIZE/SHAPE: APPROXIMATELY 120% OVERLAP FOR MY CUTTER RIG WITH FULL ENTRY AND STRAIGHT EXIT
-CLOTH: 9.77 OZ CHALLENGE MARBLEHEAD POLYESTER
-REEFING: ROLLER FURLING/REEFING FOR PROFURL NC 42 (WITH HEAVY NR 6 LUFF TAPE), STITCH IN BEST QUALITY CLOSED CELL FOAM IN LUFF ENCLOSED IN POLYSTER CLOTH TO MAINTAIN SAIL SHAPE DURING ROLLER REEFING
-CLEW POSITION: NEAR BOOM HEIGHT ABOUT 6' OFF DECK AND SO REEFED SHEET LEADS REMAIN NEARLY SAME AS UNREEFED, ENSURE MATCHES UP WITH POLE END APPROX 2' LONGER THAN J DIMENSION
-SUN PROTECTION: CHARCOAL GREY SUNBRELLA ACRYLIC, SEWN ON PORT SIDE, COVER ENTIRE LENGTH OF LEECH AND FOOT AND HEAD AND TACK CORNERS BACK APPROX 2' ALONG BOTH EDGES, SEW ACRYLIC AROUND EDGES AND CORNERS AND OVER CLOTH AND ALL STRAIN RELIEF WEBBING, INSTALL SUN COVER SO EASILY REPLACED WITHOUT REMOVING ANY WEBBING OR CLOTH
-CHAFE PROTECTION: SEW IN GENEROUS SIZED SPREADER PATCHES OF UV RESISTANT POLYESTER P & S -TACK/HEAD: CUTBACKS FOR PROFURL NC 42
-TELLTALES: PLACE THREE TELLTALES 12" AFT OF LUFF AT 20/40/60% UP FROM TACK

MAINSAIL SPECIFICS:

-MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS: LUFF 52-9, FOOT 15-7, LEECH 53-8, APPROX 430 SF
-SIZE/SHAPE: LOOSE FOOTED CRUISING MAIN WITH FULL ENTRY AND STRAIGHT EXIT, EASILY FLATTENED FOR HEAVIER WIND WITH OUTHAUL AND CUNNINGHAM, MAXIMUM DRAFT WELL FORWARD, DESIGN WITH 12" ROACH THAT DOES NOT TOUCH BACKSTAY
-CLOTH: 9.77 OZ CHALLENGE MARBLEHEAD POLYESTER
-REEFING: 2 REEFS AT APPROX 31 AND 58 PERCENT OF SAIL AREA, 9' AND 19' UP LUFF, SECOND REEF SHOULD LEAVE HEAD NEAR INNER FORSTAY JUNCTION, USE HYDRAULICALLY PRESSED LARGE SS RUGERSON #25 LUFF CRINGLES WITH HAND SEWN WEBBED RINGS P & S POSITIONED TO REACH REEFING HOOK AT GOOSENECK OVER STACKED SAIL, LEECH CRINGLES SAME CONSTRUCTION BUT LARGER #35 RUGERSON CRINGLES, EXTRA CLOTH LAYERING OPPOSING STRAIN AT ALL REEFING CRINGLES, EXTRA CLOTH LAYER UNDER REEF POINT EYES
-CHAFE PROTECTION: SEW IN HEAVY CHAFE PROTECTION P & S OVER BATTEN POCKETS AND SAIL WHERE THEY CONTACT SHROUDS OR SPREADERS, ACCOMMODATE FULL HOIST AND BOTH REEFED POSITIONS, GOAL IS TO PROTECT SAIL ON LONG DOWN WIND RUNS WITH BOOM FULLY OUT AND SAIL IN CONTACT WITH RIG FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME, CHAFE MATERIAL TO BE FURTHER DISCUSSED
-LUFF: ALL INTERMEDIATE MAINSAIL SLIDES TO BE HAND SEWN ON WITH 1" HEAVY TUBULAR WEBBING, USE PTFE AWLSLIP INTERNAL SLIDES, DOUBLE UP AT HEAD AND MAJOR STRESS POINTS, USE FULL LENGTH 3/8" NEW ENGLAND SPUN DACRON BOLTROPE WITH 9 OZ TAPE OVER ALONG ENTIRE LUFF
-TELLTALES: POSITION TOP TWO AT LEECH END OF TOP TWO BATTENS AND BOTTOM TWO AT MAX DRAFT 25 AND 50% UP FROM FOOT
-CORNERS: USE #35 ALL SS HYDRAULICALLY PRESSED RUGERSON RING AT HEAD AND TACK, USE HEAVY WELDED SS EXPOSED RING WITH STRONG WEBBING STRAIN RELIEFS AT TACK, USE EXTRA THICKNESS REINFORCING PATCHES AT CORNERS AS NECESSARY TO ENSURE EXTRA STRONG ATTACHMENT
-CUNNINGHAM: PLACE RUGERSON ALL SS HYDRAULICALLY PRESSED CUNNINGHAM RING ALONG LUFF ABOVE TACK
-BATTENS: INSTALL FIVE FULL LENGTH BATTEN POCKETS IN SAIL CONSISTING OF 3 LAYERS OF 9 OZ CLOTH (27 OZ TOTAL) PRODUCING A TUBE FOR THE BATTEN SEWN ON A SEPARATE HEAVY CLOTH SLAB, LEECH ENDS TO CONSIST OF 4 LAYERS OF 9 OZ CLOTH TO HOLD THE PROTECTED BATTEN END, USE BAINBRIDGE AQUA BATTEN A305 HARDWARE AT FORWARD ENDS TO TENSION THE BATTEN AND PROVIDE A UNIVERSAL JOINT WITH THE AWLSLIP INTERNAL SLIDES, PROVIDE FOUR 7/16" AND ONE 3/8" FULL LENGTH ROUND PULTRUDED FIBERGLASS BATTENS WITH GLUED ON LEECH END FITTINGS
-REEFING SAFETY STRAPS: OWNER TO MAKE TWO STRAPS MADE WITH 1.5" HEAVY TUBULAR WEBBING LONG ENOUGH FOR THREE PASSES AROUND REEFING CRINGLE AND BOOM (BOOM 1'-9"), USING HOOK AND LOOP STRAPPING SEW HOOK ON ONE SIDE AND LOOP ON OTHER FULL LENGTH
(top)

Sailmakers

(Posted 4/23/2004) Mack Sails of Stuart FL is a high quality sailmaker specializing in cruising sails. Both Tom Service/SV Jean Marie and Ron Sheridan/SV Memory Rose have had or are having sails made by Mack. My current Yankee Jib and Staysail are old Mack sails probably 15 or more years old. I have checked Mack out carefully and they are top notch but also not inexpensive.

That said, I chose Supersailmakers of Ft Lauderdale for all the reasons I mentioned in my post of a couple months ago. They are starting to construct my new sails next week. My Mainsail is also full batten and loose footed but with a different batten/slide system and a recent change to 3 reefs. We too are planning a circumnavigation and I believe either sailmaker can properly advise you and construct suitable sails for that kind of service.

Be sure to check out all the features each offer, especially the quality of sail cloth before you sign up. Also, it is most important to have any sailmaker you choose come and personally measure your boat with you present so you can review with him the myriad of details that will require your attention. That may be difficult if you are on the West coast. I sure was glad I was there when Peter Grimm measured my boat.  (top)

Roller Furling Staysail

(Posted 11/23/2004)  In reply to David's post re installing a roller furling staysail here's what we did. An article in Cruising World several years ago by Peter Rabbit's owners describes most of this project.

First, the club foot on the staysail is unnecessary and very dangerous in a really heavy seaway. I was convinced to make a change after the 20 year old SS fitting that holds the club gooseneck broke while underway on a Boy Scout trip. The sail is small and can easily be tacked after you are done tacking the jib, usually without even a winch handle. I initially installed a new 3/8" wire stay with toggles top and bottom and a new turnbuckle to replace the existing 1/4" wire stay. I removed the track from the roller furling main, another headache now gone, cut two 4' sections and installed them outboard port and starboard on the cabin top. I moved the two Lewmar 30 ST winches, originally used for the double ended main sheet, to the forward cockpit combing port and starboard. The Barient 27 ST, originally used for the staysail sheet, I moved aft on the port cockpit combing for the mainsheet (now dead ended on the other side). By fairleading the staysail sheets on each side through sliding blocks on the two cabin top tracks and then through standup blocks at the aft end of the tracks you can lead the sheets through small holes in the dodger front direct to the Lewmar 20 winches. In the last two years I have added rope clutches just forward of the two sheet winches to allow them to be used for other lines.

And finally the roller furling for the staysail I added just this year as I was able to pick up a Profurl NC 42, used, for $600 that matches the one I have on the jib. I originally chose Profurl over the others because of the reputation it has with the round the world racing sailors. If you find one used with bent extrusions they can easily be bent back straight. Profurl, now owned by Wichard, can also make repairs at reasonable cost. Although the argument against using roller furling on the staysail includes the slight possibility of mechanical failure, most riggers and sailmakers now agree that the state of the art in furlers is such that the chance of a failure is very small.

There are two compelling reasons to use roller furling for the staysail. First, the much more convenient furling and unfurling of the sail results in greatly increased use of the sail when you need it. And second, when sailing in very rough conditions, you can easily reef the sail to storm jib size from the safety of the cockpit rather than having to go to the fore deck to replace the staysail with a storm jib. If you have a club foot it is downright life threatening.

My new staysail is built heavy enough and sized to get to storm jib size in two rolls of the roller furler. The only additional running rigging required is the roller furling/reefing line leading to the cockpit. It has to be strongly made, kept in good condition and lead through strong fairleads all the way to a winch in the cockpit. I added another rope clutch and a Barient 27 to the aft starboard cockpit combing for just this purpose. After 20 trips up and down the Keys I can tell you that this system works just fine. The only down side to all this is the added expense, if new a couple of boat $ units, and some work on your part installing the furler and deck hardware. Anyone that can read instructions and get up their mast can do this project. If you plan on keeping your boat sailing in blue water you'll find this project well worthwhile.  (top)

Storm Trysail

Here, for anyone interested are our specs for a new storm trysail for Soggy Paws to be built by Supersailmakers in Ft Lauderdale. By way of explanation as to how we arrived at the square footage target, the ORC maximum, (P X E)X.175, for a tall rig is about 145 sf. Since our third reef in the new main is 185 sf, not too much more than the 145 sf, we decided to drop down a little more to allow the sail to be carried in a bit stronger wind and yet still move the boat. This is where the sailmaker's offshore experience will help you make the right decision the first time. I am now growing tired of spending money on sails so this will be the last one. When we leave for the Pacific we will carry the three new sails, jib, main and staysail, the new storm trysail and our old but refurbished staysail. At the advice of several cruisers who have crossed the Pacific, and because of our rising waterline and overflowing lockers, we will not carry a spinnaker/drifter. I feel somewhat better about that decision now that we have installed a new additional fuel tank and can carry 150 gallons of diesel, enough for about a week of motoring.

STORM TRYSAIL FOR CSY 44 WT TALL RIG CUTTER

  • Built, reinforced and chafe protected to withstand the heaviest storm conditions

  • Cloth to be 12 oz Challenge High Modulus.

  • Crosscut computer design and cut. Built extra flat with max camber of 5%.

  • In storm conditions the staysail will be furled to storm jib size and sheeted to staysail sheet winches on the forward cockpit combing. Storm trysail would then sheet via a snatch turning block mounted at the jib turning block and then to the jib sheet winches. Measured distance from cap shroud aft to a snatch block on the jib turning block is 16'-10". Another option is the large cleats 4'-0" further aft that could also be used as the attachment points for sheet leads. These points may have to be improved for added strength.

  • When the sail is fully hoisted and sheeted tight, the clew should ideally set just above boom. Distance from the cabin top at the base of the mast- to the top of the boom is 49.0", to the top of the furled main stack at the head is 93.0".

  • External heavy duty 7/8" bronze slides attached with tubular webbing to #4 grommets spaced 24" apart. Double slides at head and tack webbed to pressed on Ruckerson rings.

  • Strong large Ruckerson pressed on rings at all 3 corners with substantial webbing strain relief on all.

  • Low aspect sail with 18'-19' luff. There is exactly 20' of track available above the furled stacked head of the mainsail.

  • Target sail area should be about 120 sf which is about 25 sf less than ORC maximum.

  • Two ply leech with with black 2" webbing as second tape running along the entire length for extra strength. 3/8" dacron boltrope along the luff. Foot strongly double taped.

  • Heavily reinforced multiple layered corner patches

  • Triple stitch all panels with heavy V128 or better thread.

  • Tack downhaul line of 7/16" very low stretch dacron and sufficient length to be cleated near the gooseneck.  (top)

AC System Wiring

Below find some info regarding an electrical casualty we suffered here in Trinidad. Hope this will help someone else avoid a rather large repair bill.

Not long ago while in the Power Boats yard here in Trinidad we suffered a voltage spike from shore power that ruined the FETs in the motherboard of our Heart Interface inverter/charger. Evidently surges like that are quite common here and maybe in other developing countries also. I had wrongly assumed that the internal circuitry of the unit and my main circuit breaker would have protected it from such an occurance.

A Heart representative giving a seminar here verified that it would not. Evidently some surges are too fast for the internal protection to be effective. At the time I had it wired according to one of the diagrams in their installation manual that had shore power going through the unit in order to make use of the power sharing feature before it fed my 110 v sub breakers.

I was lucky in that there was a local electrical repair shop that is one of the few authorized repair facilities worldwide. After paying up, I was determined not to let this happen again. So after discussing wiring options with the shop manager and the Heart rep mentioned above I came up with the following which might be of help to those of you setting up your own electrical system with an inverter/charger.

The goals were to minimize time of exposure of the inverter/charger to shore power, ensure no possibility of backfeeding the inverter from shore power and separate out the shore power only 110 v loads. My 110 v loads consist of a hot water heater, the battery charger and two110 v wall outlets, totalling four sub circuit breakers. The first two are not suitable for being fed by the inverter and therefore are fed by shore power only. Additional components in the circuit include a 35 amp rotary 2 pole 3 position (‘shore/off/gen’) switch (available through Defender and others), the 30 amp main breaker, a Link 2000 monitor that also turns on/off the inverter/charger and the Heart 2500 watt inverter/130 amp battery charger. The new circuit goes like this:

  • 110 v shore power (positive/black and neutral/white wires) comes in to the main breaker via the boat’s 30 amp electrical connector.
  • One set of black/white wires from the main breaker feeds the hot water heater and battery charger sub breakers (white goes to a common neutral buss) which are isolated from the other two. These are the shore power only loads.
  • Another set of black/white wires from the main breaker feeds the shore side of the rotary switch.
  • The 110 v output black/white wires from the inverter feed the gen side of the rotary switch.
  • The output black/white wires from the rotary switch feed the two 110 v wall outlets (white goes to the common neutral buss).
  • All green ground wires go to a common post/bar and are not switched. I have installed a galvanic isolator in the green wire between the shore power connection and the common green wire post/bar to reduce galvanic corrosion underwater.

When all wired up if you have the rotary switch in the ‘shore’ position you will feed all four 110 v sub breakers with shore power through the main breaker. The battery charger is on one of these sub breakers which must be turned on to start the charger with the Link 2000. In order to minimize its exposure to shore power the charger is switched on only when we need it. The inverter is isolated from the 110 v system. With the rotary switch in the ‘gen’ position shore power is disconnected from the two wall outlets but still feeds the water heater and battery charger sub breakers. The inverter when energized with the Link 2000 feeds the two wall outlets. With the rotary switch in the ‘off’ position nothing feeds the two wall outlets, but shore power still feeds the water heater and battery charger sub breakers through the main breaker.

Analog meters for AC volts and amps next to the rotary switch allow us to monitor the shore power quality. By only using the battery charger when needed and keeping the rest of the Heart unit out of the shore power circuit we minimize the chance of another problem with questionable shore power sources.

One other component I’d like to have is a 30 amp-capable surge protector to protect the battery charger, microwave and other 110 v equipment when they’re on. I haven’t found one yet.

From experience, my advice if you have an inverter/battery charger is to be sure you understand how it’s wired and do all you can to protect it from shore power surges. If you don’t it could be a costly lesson.

High Amp Fuses

(Posted 6/29/1999)  Here’s another electrical issue that I came across recently that may be of some use to those of you outfitting your boats for cruising.

We left Florida with an electrical system that I had thoroughly gone through in order to ensure we did not have a problem. I had traced every wire, removing all dead ends, replaced much of the smaller wiring and connections, rewired the battery circuits to provide a house bank and separate dedicated starting battery, replaced and upgraded all the larger cables and end fittings, replaced the batteries and refurbished the box and its shelf, added tie downs for the batteries, added a Link 2000 monitoring system, added a 110 v system, and added a new bank of circuit breakers for our expanded circuits.

I carefully terminated wires and cables with heat shrink and routed the cables so there was minimal chance of a short. The one thing I did not get to was installing high amperage fuses or circuit breakers in the battery cables. Until I had time to install them I figured that I could be careful enough not to cause a short when working around the batteries. Also we normally turn off all loads when we leave the boat.

When we reached Trinidad I was talking with a fellow cruiser who indicated that two boats he personally knew had had fires aboard due to the intense heat buildup from shorted battery cells. A single Trojan T105 for instance can provide over 1000 amps for a short time to a dead short. This is enough to cause a fire even in the large battery cables between the batteries with no other loads turned on-ie your main battery switch turned off.

It was scary enough to cause me to immediately review all my electrical manuals and figure out where I should put in fuses. So far we have added two 300 amp Blue Seas ANL fuses, one each on the positive battery cables about 6 inches from our house and start battery. To protect us from a shorted cell fire we should also have fuses or on/off switches located in the cables between the batteries, but that’s a lot of fuses/switches. This looks like another one of those how much is enough protection issues.

In any case we now comply with the AYBC standards for battery cable fusing and I feel much safer. Many cruisers leave home without the basic high amp fuses. As we build more and more into our electrical systems I believe that this is asking for serious trouble. These fuses are cheap insurance against electrical disaster. I would encourage all of you to take a close look at this issue as you prepare your boats for sea. By the way if you’re going to do this work yourself purchasing a quality cable terminal crimper is a good investment and makes all this work easy.

Anti-Theft Starting Circuit

(Posted 6/30/1999)  Have you been looking for a good way to set up your starting circuit to prevent theft and still provide the capability to instantly start your engine from the cockpit in an emergency? Here’s one good way to do it.

First set up your battery banks so that you have a separate dedicated starting battery, separate, but able to be cross connected to the house bank. Route the positive starter cable only to the starter battery such that the engine can only be started through the starter battery. Install a suitable hidden but easily accessible on/off switch with a removable key in the starter cable. The $15 Hella on/off switch with red key works fine and is available almost everywhere.

When you leave the boat for a long time take the key with you or hide it aboard. When you’re aboard and the engine is not in use at a dock or at anchor, leave the switch off but key in to prevent draining the start battery if you have a short in the starter.

When you are underway sailing with the engine off, leave the key on so the engine can be started quickly in an emergency. Besides this keyed starter cable switch you should have a suitable ignition circuit breaker below on the panel and a keyed ignition/starter switch in the cockpit, both wired in series.

When you are underway sailing, leave the ignition circuit breaker on below and the keyed ignition switch above off. If you need to do an emergency start just use the cockpit ignition switch.

Anyone trying to steal your boat in your absence will have to have two keys, good electrical knowledge and access to your interior. Of course you have your hatch bars in place, so it won’t be easy for them to get in. Also, they will have to find your starter cable switch or use jumpers to your starter and figure out the rest of this purposely complicated wiring plan. Given all the trouble you’ll put them through they’ll hopefully go to your neighbor’s boat to do their dirty work.    (top)

Batteries: Trojan T105's vs L16's

My six Trojan T105s are rated at about 220 amp hours each when new and provide more than 700 deep discharge cycles if properly cared for over their service life. This was recently confirmed by the Heart Interface Sales representative that was in Trinidad last week for a seminar. He mentioned that T105s sell so well because they are well made, provide the most amp hours for the dollar and are one of the few deep cycle batteries that are available worldwide--even in small developing countries. He also mentioned that current thinking on the important equalizing of lead acid batteries is to do it when the batteries show a loss of charging acceptance and not on a periodic (2-3 month) basis. He stated that if you don't equalize your lead acid batteries you will see a significant cycle life loss.

Trojan L16s are about 4 times the cost of T105s (I paid about $55 US each for mine). I believe that the amp hour rating is about 370 and cycle life is about 1000 cycles. Given the above why would I want L16s instead of T105s?

Swim Platform

(Posted 04/18/2005)  The issues for us in designing a stern swim platform were:

  1. Allowing room for a Monitor windvane to be installed trailing just
    behind the platform (approx 20" off the stern).

  2. Ensuring we could lift the dinghy out of the water in a high 8'
    stowed position over the platform and windvane for short hops when we
    were not using the windvane and for night security. When we are using
    the Monitor for long trips the dinghy is mounted strapped down tight
    forward of the mast on the cabin top.

  3. Allowing partial disassembly by quickly removing the Starboard
    decking and leaving the frame on long passages when we might encounter a
    gale or worse. This configuration still allows use of the framework for
    recovery of a man or other objects that fall overboard.

  4. Providing a platform for swimming, diving, showering, boarding the
    dinghy, a water level fish gaffing position, and a standing position for
    the fish cleaning station on the Monitor mounting struts.

Overall we think our $400 expenditure on our swim platform was one of the best projects we've done to Soggy Paws.  (top)

Holding Plates

(Posted 02/08/2005)  Chuck, I agree with Ron don't pitch that holding plate. If it is original Crosby, it is a stainless steel brine plate with steel interior tubes. It has a capacity to remove about 3500 BTUs of heat an hour.  Today it would cost you about $600 to replace. They have a very tight freeze-thaw temperature span and work very well in our large boxes. My refrig plate, which is the same size as the one you mentioned, is cooling our 10 cu foot refrigerator box for about 25 AH a day. (top)

Water Tanks

Here's a little more info on our walk Thru water tanks.

There are a total of 5 original tanks. All are fiberglass. The two under the port and starboard settees gravity drain through brass check valves to the center tank which is plumbed to a brass manifold mounted on the aft bulkhead of the bilge sump. Their access plates are all accessible under the settee seats or floor but are a bear to remove. The two forward tanks are under the main cabin table on either side of the mast step. They are plumbed separately to the manifold. Their access plates, if installed, are inaccessible without performing Sawzall surgery on the floor. If you want to work with the forward tanks' plumbing/hose connections you will want to remove the table and mast to gain full access. All the tanks have 5/8 inch vents going to vent hardware mounted above the rubrails on the topsides. There are three fills in the deck.

Capacities-
Port settee: 45 gals
Stbd settee: 40 gals
Centerline: 45 gals
Forward: 17 gals each

In order to upgrade the system and make us comfortable using the water for drinking we have done the following on Soggy Paws:

  • Removed and replaced all the hoses and valves.

  • Made a new PVC manifold with separate 3/4" PVC ball valves for each tank and placed it above the floor under the companionway steps for better access.

  • Installed 1.5" PVC ball valves in place of the brass check valves.

  • Opened and thoroughly cleaned the three big tanks. Replaced the destroyed fiberglass access plates with gasketed aluminum. Removing the access plates will test your tenacity.

  • Included manifold taps for the pressure system, a manual foot pump system and refrigeration cooling water for living aboard during long haulouts.

  • Added a Seagull filtration system for drinking water.

  • Added household filters just below the deck fill inlets and just after the strainer before the pressure pump.

  • Made a two gallon accumulator tank of 4" PVC and mounted it vertically in the forward starboard corner of the aft head.

  • Changed all the faucets to more modern units with easily replaced valve internals.

  • Replaced all three sinks with larger ones. We like a single large galley sink.

  • Plumbed the galley sink drain through a macerator so it can be drained when heeled.

There's not much more important while cruising than good drinking water. So we took the time to try to do a safe, efficient system. It is well worth the effort to spend some time with your head in the tanks and bilge checking out and cleaning up your system. Our last project will be to add an engine driven large capacity watermaker before we head out again.

There are original plans and specs for the tanks and the original plumbing system. They may be on Ed Marill's website.   (top)

Cap Rail Replacement

After 8 years of living with the original CSY 44 teak cap rails and their various problems I finally decided to do something about it. I looked carefully at all the replacement options including teak, oak, douglas fir, various plastic/wood mixes, fiberglass and aluminum edge extrusions. Both Jim Dill of Chilly Pepper and I reached the same conclusion and ordered the only aluminum extrusion in existence that will fit--a heavy duty extrusion built by Taco Metals in Miami. Three 34' sections were enough to do both boats. We both had previously replaced our chainplates, mine external, Jim's internal. We also had each redesigned and replaced our lifeline stanchions. Here for any of you interested in a month's worth of work on your 44 CSY are the steps involved in the process of removing and replacing the caprails with an aluminum extrusion.

  1. Remove all lifeline stanchions and other fittings on the caprail

  2. Sand the somewhat evenly spaced screw bungs so you can locate them all

  3. Remove the bungs with your favorite technique. I turned Stacy loose on them with an hammer and narrow chisel.

  4. Clean out the screw heads with a sharp pick and remove the screws with a screwgun

  5. Remove the teak caps. Again I turned Stacy loose on them with two flat prybars and a sledge hammer. They were off in a day.

  6. Scrape and rough sand the fiberglass caps to remove the remaining 5200. We had 5200 only on the inboard edges of the caps and around most of the screw holes.

  7. Clean out all the holes with an oversized drill bit. Use a countersink bit to bevel the tops of all the holes and remove any high spots around them

  8. Epoxy patch all the holes and damaged areas caused by the demolition team, including the trim piece screw holes in the hull just under the cap

  9. Tighten as many remaining screws/bolts as you can to get the heads below the level of the cap

  10. Sand the cap and trim piece screw holes as smooth as possible with 100 grit and a random orbit sander.

  11. Clean the cap with denatured alcohol and apply blue tape along the inboard corner of the cap and around the curved portion of the steps just below any sanded portion

  12. Apply two coats of epoxy and at least 1 layer of 4" wide fiberglass cloth well wetted out over the top of the cap taking care to keep it very even along the inside edge just at the corner

  13. When dry sand as smooth as possible with 100 grit so there is no cloth print through

  14. Remove the blue tape

  15. Lightly drill dimple the cap where the stanchion bases will fit

  16. Clean the cap with denatured alcohol

  17. Apply blue tape just below/outside any sanded areas along the inside corner of the cap and around the curved section at the steps

  18. Apply 5 coats of Awlgrip primer with a roller to the cap, apply several coats to the trim piece screw holes with a small brush

  19. After several days drying remove the blue tape

  20. Sand all primer as smooth as possible with 100 grit including the raised tape edge of primer at the inside corner of the cap and around the steps

  21. Measure twice and cut the extrusion to fit your caprail. With external chainplates I had to cut my extrusions into two pieces with the joint at the cap shroud chainplate and then notch them on the outside for the chainplates. Jim did his in one piece on each side and notched them on the inside for the chainplates. All the cutting and notching was done with a grinder and cutoff wheel.

  22. Grind the extrusion cutouts and ends with a grinder and then file smooth

  23. Rough sand or grind any protruding edge of the deck flange so it won't interfere with the extrusion fit

  24. Dry fit the extrusion to the cap starting at the aft end. Fit 1/4"X2" oval phillips screws after carefully clamping the extrusion tight against the outside of the cap and drilling holes with a 3/16" drill bit. Use vaseline or other lubricant on the screw threads to reduce the chance of breaking one off.

  25. Carefully unscrew and remove the extrusion

  26. Clean the extrusion, cap and screw heads of vaseline and fiberglass dust

  27. Bevel the tops of the screw holes so the caulk will form an O ring seal

  28. Remove any old caulk along the outside edge of the cap with a knife so new caulk will grab

  29. Vacuum the cap, all screw holes and the outside edge of the cap

  30. Alcohol clean the upper hull side, cap and rail where caulk has to grab

  31. Dry fit the rail again with screws only every 5 holes and apply blue tape to the top of the cap and hull where they meet the extrusion

  32. Remove the extrusion and ensure the tape is on tightly

  33. Apply your favorite caulk to the cap and all screw holes

  34. Apply Tefgel to the bevel on all screw heads

  35. Clamp and screw the rail to the cap using a helper to hold the forward end up off the caulk until you are ready to screw that section down. Work on 5' sections at a time.

  36. Remove excess caulk with a narrow scraper

  37. Wipe any remaining caulk off the extrusion with Lacquer Thinner

  38. Apply caulk at ends and chainplates and fair smooth

  39. Remove the tape within about 6 hours and clean up any remaining caulk

  40. Remove all dust and clean the inside 3 inches of cap with alcohol

  41. Apply blue tape just below the sanded inboard corner of the cap, around the curved cap at the steps and along the inboard and hull edges of the extrusion

  42. Apply three coats of Awlgrip topcoat to the cap between the tape strips and at the trim piece screw holes

  43. Remove the tape when the paint is dry and lightly sand the edges if necessary

  44. Reinstall the lifeline stanchions using good caulking technique and 1/4" spacers (I used Starboard) under the bases if they overlap the extrusion.

  45. Install all other hardware ensuring a tight and waterproof fit

Now it's finally done! Total cost about one boat unit, $1K. Major benefits include a watertight caprail, a bullet proof outboard edge, a strong attachment point for such things as roller reefing blocks, fenders, and running rigging and best of all no more varnishing. As painting and fiberglass work are not among my strong suits, many thanks to Ron of Memory Rose for advising/supervising and helping me with this project. Without his help it wouldn't have gotten done. I also had the advantage of watching Jim Dill of Chilly Pepper do his first. (top)

Toe Rail Finish

(Posted 02/09/2005) Dag, I think you are on a better track using the painted finish. As a matter of fact Jim Dill of Chilly Pepper recently did his aft teak toe rails with a Napa two part polyurethane very similar to Awlgrip in a teak color that looks super.

While in Trinidad I used a cheap locally mixed two part polyurethane by Sikkens on my cap and toe rails that has been on 5 years now, although it is now somewhat sun bleached on the top. It is still intact but has not been touched in 5 years. Based on Jim's recommendation, and he knows paint, I will repaint my exterior wood soon using the Napa product. We don't do varnishes on Soggy Paws
except on the cockpit teak where we use Cetol touched up every couple of years. We hate to varnish!  (top)

Midships Closed Chock

It is easy to rebed the midships closed chock. Just remove the two bronze end pieces by removing the 4 self-tapping screws that hold each piece to the bulwark and gently pry them off. Inside is a fiberglass tube that can be removed and then rebedded.

When I did mine several years ago the tubes were actually too long and did not allow the end pieces to seal against the bulward properly. You may have the same problem. If so just grind the ends to shorten it up so it fits properly. Use plenty of caulk carefully placed when you rebed them. Mine are now chromed and in good and tight. (top)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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